Date of publication: 2017-08-29 21:14
Immanuel Kant was born to Johann Georg Cant and his wife Anna Regina Cant as fourth of nine children. His (paternal) grandfather was from Scotland where the surname Cant is still relatively common in the north. Immanuel decided to change his surname from Cant into Kant in order for it to meet the German spelling and pronunciation practices.
No. Because even if I am being misled about everything, I know that I am being misled. Even if I doubt the existence of everything, I know that I am doubting. Let the evil demon do his worst, but from the very fact that I am thinking, doubting, being misled, it necessarily follows that I exist !
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Gregory Sadler has a wide variety of short introductory lectures on many of the Existentialists, Greeks, Hegel, and more.
The Two Dogmas of Empiricism , Willard Van Orman Quine.
Difficulty level: medium
Who to read first: Kant, Wittgenstein
Quine assumes some familiarity with previous conceptions of epistemology, such as Kant and the logical positivists. Quine attempts to dispel the idea that there is a clear split between analytic and synthetic knowledge, and that all knowledge is reducible. If you don't have a good idea what the analytic/synthetic split is, you probably shouldn't read this book yet.
So, consider this piece of wax, first before it is brought before the fire (BF) and then after it is brought before the fire (AF). BF, the wax has a number of definite qualities—a certain size, shape, smell, and so forth. All these qualities are reported to me by my senses. But AF, all these qualities have changed. Yet it is still the same piece of wax, is it not?
Some mental states exhibit intentionality. Intentional mental states include, but are not limited to, intendings , such as plans to buy milk at the store. They are states that are about, of, for, or towards things other than themselves. Desires, beliefs, loves, hates, perceptions and memories are common intentional states. For example, I may have a desire for an apple I may have love for or towards my neighbor I may have a belief about republicans or academics or I may have memories of my grandfather.
Kant grew up under the influence of Pietism, a Protestant sect that was very popular in north Germany during the early 68th century. At the age of 8, he enrolled into a Latin Pietist school with an aim to study theology when older. However, he soon developed interest in Latin and the classics. At the age of 66, he entered the University of Königsberg and mainly dedicated himself to study of mathematics but he also began to develop interest in philosophy. In 6796, he was forced to leave the university due to his father&rsquo s death. For nearly a decade, he worked as a private tutor for three influential families in order to help his siblings.
The emerging fields of embodied and enactive cognition have started to take dialogic models of the self more seriously. But for the most part, scientific psychology is only too willing to adopt individualistic Cartesian assumptions that cut away the webbing that ties the self to others. There is a Zulu phrase, ‘ Umuntu ngumuntu ngabantu ’, which means ‘A person is a person through other persons.’ This is a richer and better account, I think, than ‘I think, therefore I am.’
Up to this point, all I have proven is the existence of myself and of God. How can I prove there is anything else out there? Things, for example. How do I know they exist? I have lots of ideas of physical things—for example, I've got an idea of a table in front of me right now. But how do I know that there is anything that corresponds to that idea? How do I know it's not just all in my mind?
These problems involved in mind-body causality are commonly considered decisive refutations of interactionism. However, many interesting questions arise in this area. We want to ask: "How is mind-body interaction possible? Where does the interaction occur? What is the nature of the interface between mind and matter? How are volitions translated into states of affairs? Aren't minds and bodies insufficiently alike for the one to effect changes in the other?"
Colin McGinn is professor of philosophy at the University of Miami. His latest book is "Basic Structures of Reality: Essays in Meta-Physics" (Oxford University Press USA, £)
Two major stumbling blocks Rozemond raises for the scholastic-Aristotelian interpretation concern the mind’s status as a substantial form and the extent to which Descartes can maintain a form of the human body. However, recall that Descartes rejects substantial forms because of their final causal component. Descartes’ argument was based on the fact (as he understood it) that the scholastics were ascribing mental properties to entirely non-mental things like stones. Since the mind is an entirely mental thing, these arguments just do not apply to it. Hence, Descartes’ particular rejection of substantial forms does not necessarily imply that Descartes did not view the mind as a substantial form. Indeed, as Paul Hoffman noted:
A criticism of the traditional employment of substantial forms and their concomitant final causes in physics is found in the Sixth Replies where Descartes examines how the quality of gravity was used to explain a body’s downward motion: